IGNOU MCS-022-Operating System Concepts and Networking Management, Latest Solved Assignment (July 2023 - January 2024 )


Q5. (a) What is the Active Directory in Windows 2000? Describe, with the help of a diagram, the logical structure of the Active Directory.

Ans. Active Directory in Windows 2000 is a hierarchical database that stores information about network resources such as user accounts, computers, groups, and security policies. It provides a centralized and standardized way to manage and organize these resources in a Windows network environment.

The logical structure of Active Directory in Windows 2000 is organized hierarchically, consisting of various components that define the structure of the network and its resources. Let’s describe the logical structure of Active Directory in Windows 2000 with the help of a simplified diagram:

| Forest |
| |
| +————+ +————+ +————+ |
| | Domain | | Domain | | Domain ||
| | | | | | ||
| | | | | | ||
| +————+ +————+ +————+|
| |

1. Forest:

– The highest level of organization is the “Forest.”

– A forest represents a collection of one or more domains that share a common schema, configuration, and global catalog.

– Each forest has a unique Forest Root Domain, which is the first domain created in the forest and holds the Forest-wide configuration settings.

2. Domain:

– A domain is a logical container within a forest that defines an administrative boundary.

– Domains provide security boundaries and manage the authentication and authorization of users and resources.

– Each domain has its own security policies, trust relationships, and directory database.

– User accounts, computers, and resources are organized within domains.

3. Trees:

– A tree is a collection of one or more domains within a forest.

– Domains within a tree share a contiguous DNS namespace.

– Trees are used to establish hierarchical relationships between domains in different parts of a network.

4. Domains in a Tree:

– Domains within a tree share a common namespace and can have parent-child relationships.

– Each domain maintains its own security policies and authentication mechanisms.

5. Child Domains:

– A child domain is a subdomain within a tree or forest.

– Child domains inherit the properties and policies of the parent domain but can have their own specific settings.

6. Global Catalog (GC):

– The Global Catalog is a distributed directory that contains a subset of information from all domains in a forest.

– It enables efficient searches for objects across the forest.

This logical structure allows administrators to manage resources in a structured and organized manner, making it easier to enforce security policies, delegate administrative tasks, and maintain a scalable network environment.

(b) Differentiate the role and responsibilities of user mode and kernel mode of Windows 2000 system.

Ans. User mode and kernel mode are two distinct privilege levels in the Windows 2000 operating system, each with its own set of roles, responsibilities, and access privileges. Here’s a differentiation between user mode and kernel mode:

User Mode:

User mode is the lower-privileged mode in which applications, user-level processes, and most software components run. It provides a restricted environment for executing user programs, ensuring that applications do not directly interfere with the underlying hardware and other system resources. User mode is designed to isolate and protect applications from accessing critical parts of the system.

Responsibilities of User Mode:

1. Application Execution: All user-level applications, processes, and programs execute in user mode. This includes applications like web browsers, word processors, and media players.

2. Access to Limited Resources: Applications in user mode have restricted access to hardware and system resources. They interact with the system through system calls (APIs) provided by the operating system.

3. Isolation: User mode processes are isolated from each other, preventing one application from directly affecting or crashing another. This isolation enhances system stability and security.

4. User Interface: User mode processes handle the user interface and interact with users through windows, graphical elements, and input devices.

Kernel Mode:

Kernel mode is the higher-privileged mode in which the operating system’s core components, device drivers, and critical system services run. The kernel is responsible for managing system resources, hardware communication, and providing essential services to user mode processes.

Responsibilities of Kernel Mode:

1. System Management: The kernel manages system resources such as memory, CPU, and I/O operations. It allocates and deallocates memory, schedules processes, and maintains the file system.

2. Hardware Communication: Device drivers and hardware abstraction layers (HALs) run in kernel mode to facilitate communication between software and hardware components.

3. System Services: Critical system services, such as memory management, process scheduling, and interrupt handling, are provided by the kernel.

4. Direct Hardware Access: Kernel mode has direct access to hardware resources, allowing it to control hardware operations and respond to interrupts.


User mode processes interact with the kernel by making system calls, which provide access to the services and resources provided by the kernel. The kernel validates and executes these requests on behalf of user mode processes.



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