IGNOU BCS-051-Introduction to Software Engineering, Latest Solved Assignment (July 2023 - January 2024 )


Q2 .(A). Define the terms ‘Coupling’ and ‘Cohesion’. Briefly explain the meaning of ‘highly cohesive’ system. Is there any relation between ‘coupling’ and ‘cohesion’? Explain briefly.

Ans:- In software engineering, both “coupling” and “cohesion” are concepts used to describe the quality of relationships between different modules or components within a system.

Coupling: Coupling refers to the degree of interdependence between different modules or components in a software system. It measures how much one module relies on or interacts with another module. High coupling can lead to increased complexity, as changes in one module might require corresponding changes in other modules, making the system harder to maintain and modify.

Cohesion: Cohesion, on the other hand, refers to the degree to which the elements within a module or component work together to achieve a single, well-defined purpose or functionality. High cohesion indicates that the elements within a module are closely related and focused on a specific task, which generally leads to more maintainable and understandable code

Highly Cohesive System: A highly cohesive system is one in which the components or modules are designed and organized in such a way that each module focuses on a specific task or functionality. This makes the system easier to comprehend, maintain, and extend, as each module has a clear and well-defined role.

Relationship Between Coupling and Cohesion: There is an inverse relationship between coupling and cohesion. In other words, systems with high cohesion tend to have low coupling, and vice versa. When modules are highly cohesive, they tend to work well independently and require minimal interaction with other modules. This naturally leads to a reduction in the degree of coupling between modules. On the other hand, when coupling between modules is kept low, it often contributes to higher cohesion, as modules need to be self-contained to minimize their reliance on other modules.

In summary, while coupling and cohesion are distinct concepts, they are closely related in software design. Balancing these two factors is crucial for creating maintainable, flexible, and comprehensible software systems. A system with low coupling and high cohesion is generally considered well-designed and easier to manage over the long term.

(B). What are application logic objects? Explain with the help of an example.

Ans: – Application Logic Objects (ALOs) refer to the components or modules within a software application that encapsulate specific business logic or functionality. These objects are designed to handle specific tasks, operations, or processes within the application, making the codebase more organized, maintainable, and modular.

ALOs help in separating different concerns within an application, which in turn promotes code reusability and easier debugging. By encapsulating specific logic within these objects, developers can create a more comprehensible and scalable architecture.

Let’s take an example to illustrate the concept of Application Logic Objects:

Example: E-Commerce Application

Imagine you’re developing an e-commerce application that allows users to browse products, add them to a cart, and place orders. In this application, you can identify several distinct application logic

Product Catalog: This object is responsible for managing the catalog of products available in the  e-commerce store. It contains methods to retrieve product information, such as product details, pricing, and availability. It might also have methods to filter and search for products based on various criteria.

Shopping Cart: The Shopping Cart object handles everything related to managing the user’s shopping cart. It allows users to add items, remove items, update quantities, and calculate the total cost of items in the cart.

Order Processing: This object manages the process of placing and processing orders. It could include methods to create an order from items in the shopping cart, calculate taxes and shipping costs, and handle payment processing.

User Authentication: Although not directly related to the shopping process, user authentication is an important part of the application’s logic. This object could handle user login, registration, and session management.

Promotion Engine: If the application offers discounts or promotions, the Promotion Engine object could manage the logic for applying and calculating discounts on items in the shopping cart.

By structuring the application with these separate Application Logic Objects, the codebase becomes more organized and easier to manage. Each object is responsible for a specific set of tasks, and changes to one object are less likely to impact others. For instance, if you need to update the way discounts are calculated, you can focus on the Promotion Engine without needing to touch the other logic objects.

In summary, Application Logic Objects (ALOs) are modular components that encapsulate specific functionality within a software application. They help in keeping the codebase organized, promoting reusability, and making the application more maintainable.



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